Step by Step Towards the Truth • Denis’ Blog, Portfolio and Resumé

Step by Step Towards the Truth

Essay on Origins

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Summary

What is the origin of this universe, and where does life inhabiting it come from? Does this earth come from the mites of Pangu's body, as Chinese mythology indicates? Or do we rather come from a cosmic egg, from the chaos of a primal sea, as ancient Egyptian cosmology teaches? Such propositions, since they are mutually contradictory, should bring us to an evident point: much error and many lies circulate concerning the subject of origins. This text is therefore written to demonstrate that the knowledge of the origins of this universe is not unaccessible, but readily available to those who wish to apply sound reasoning to the question.

Biography

Being born in Sorel-Tracy and having lived in Granby during my youth, I now reside in St-Denis-sur-Richelieu, where I have studied at home since my teens. Since the last three years, that is done at a distance. I desire to eventually study in computer science, and more specifically, web conception as well as the graphic art assigned to that goal. Another of my major interests is the composition of classical music, music which I play on the violin and piano.

Who made us, why are we here, and where are we going? These existential questions are answerable when one searches for truth.

Preamble

Who am I, Where am I from, And why am I here? Universal Questions
If, as claimed by humanism, man were born only to be happy, he would not be born to die. [] American Literature Classics for Christians Vol. 5, A Beka Book, Pensacola, Florida (2011) p. 267

I have determined to write this text to demonstrate that the knowledge of the origins of this universe is not unaccessible, but readily available to those who wish to apply sound reasoning to the question—using a step-by-step approach. And that question is not just a matter of curious interest, but rather of importance, because if we can know how we came to be, and why we did, we then know what to expect of our life, and plan what we should make of it in consequence.

This text therefore has an extremely simple goal. Its aim is answering this question: what is the origin of the cosmos? That is to say:

What is the origin of this universe, And where does life inhabiting it come from?

We will henceforth call that question the question of origins. As we know—and that, even without prior proof—many have hastily brought forth their own answers to that question. And seeing the quantity of religions and various philosophies that answer it, those answers are as diverse as contradictory.

However, such unfounded beliefs cannot—at least not certainly—lead to the truth. Does this earth come from the mites of Pangu's body, [] Found on en.wikipedia.org February 28, 2015. Or do we rather come from a cosmic egg, from the chaos of a primal sea, [] Found on en.wikipedia.org February 28, 2015. Such propositions, since they are mutually contradictory, should bring us to an evident point: much error and many lies circulate concerning the subject of origins.

That is why this text is meant to be as well-reasoned as possible. You do not need to trust me as an author, nor take for granted that my words are at all true. If you honestly apply yourself to the task of searching out for the truth step-by-step, you will come to exactly the same conclusions as are presented here.

But I do want to tell you that seeing the immense material to cover on the topic, and seeing the very restricted amount of time and words in which I must do so, it has been impossible to document all the arguments and all the logical steps one must follow to come to the conclusions presented here. For each argument and counter-argument that I make, I imagine five or six other similar ones could be elaborated.

I do not pretend to have the capacity of convincing you. But my goal is only to present the facts, and to demonstrate that the line of thought followed here is clearly defendable. If you research yourself after the reading of this text, I will then have attained my goal.

Only, remember that this is a search for truth, and that all propositions must be considered and accepted or rejected with a sufficient knowledge for rendering them absolutely true or false. I therefore ask you, dear reader, to remain as impartial as possible, and not be influenced by your preconceived ideas, nor even by the thoughts which I have written, if they are unfounded by any measure. And with these words, dear reader, let us begin our quest towards the knowledge of truth.

Where to Begin

As a starting point for our discussion, it is certainly reasonable to first look into the views of our forefathers on that question, to see if there be any truth to remember in them.

As men have considered the working beings that are man and beast, and plant life, and the earth and planets, the sun, the moon, and the inconceivably vast expanse of stars, they have constantly assumed that all they saw had been formed by a superior being or beings. That is the basis for all religion, as well as the most common explanation to the question of our origins.

Another alternative, first hinted at by the Greeks, but now widespread in the scientific community today—and more generally, in the scientific community—is the Theory of Evolution. According to it, the cosmos actually does not need a creator, but has simply expanded into our universe and given birth to life through slow and gradual processes.

Presupposition: As you may have noticed, this text simply assumes that the origin of the universe needs an explanation, because out of our own experience we know that an object always has an origin or an originator. In other words, we are starting with the premise that our universe once had a beginning. Of course, that thought is very straightforward, and one cannot go against it because contradicting it would require this universe to be absolutely uncertain in its cycles and laws. However, that is not our human experience. Otherwise, we would not set out to prove anything logically, since doing so would be a futile exercise.

We therefore have here a clear logical contradiction that we can use to our benefit. Quite clearly, if the cosmos evolved, there was then no need for a being to create it. Or if the earth was created, it could not have arisen on its own. Therefore, we have now found what question to first answer in our quest for truth:

First Interrogation: Was the universe and life created by some superior being, or did it occur by the natural processes described in the Cosmological Model and its Theory of Evolution?

If we find but one error with either one of these propositions, we then can be certain that we have not found the absolutely certain truth that we are searching for.

Analysis of the Theory of Evolution

Let us first begin with an analysis of the theory of evolution, keeping the various forms of creation, of which there are many, for later scrutiny, if evolution cannot first offer a satisfying answer. Again, I urge you, reader, to be impartial to the utmost, and to give due consideration to whatever matter may be pertinent.

Evolution begins with the understanding that the whole universe that we know came from nothing. Oddly enough, when one thinks on that premise, it becomes very strange for the scientific theory that evolution is. Imagine a universe of unlit, empty space. This emptiness is all there is, because it is vacant, being nothing. Then, suddenly and inexplicably, a speck of matter appears. Out of nothingness, therefore, substance appears; how then was it formed? If in the beginning of time there was no energy nor solid, both of which are necessary to the creation of another energy or another solid, how could this primitive product appear out of nothing?

That is very odd. No matter how scientific and proven the Theory of Evolution is, at first glance, it seems very akin to the idea of spontaneous generation. What, therefore, is the solution?

Let us first consider science as a means of finding truth. Science as a form of study is the observation of events, the formulation of a hypothesis to explain why those events occur, and the creation of experiments to demonstrate the veracity of the hypothesis. We recognise that process of study as the scientific method of investigation. All the laws of science are recognised to be true because they have never been contradicted by any experiment.

It is interesting to consider that it is impossible to prove anything in science. It is only possible to demonstrate that a certain hypothesis is not functional. That is because even if an experiment may seem to demonstrate that a certain concept is acceptable (such as to make a stone and a feather fall at a certain distance from the ground and to measure their rate of descent) someone may perhaps find an experiment proving that a certain hypothesis is untenable (such as to make a stone and a feather fall and measure their rate of fall in a vacuum).

Why do we know we can believe science? Because it can be demonstrated. That is the reason for the mantra of observation, hypothesis, and experimenting.

There is an important difference, however, between the theories of the propagation of light, for example, and the theories of Evolution. Light has been measured by many means, and even if we do not yet understand everything about it, many experiments can sustain our knowledge of its wave-particle duality, etc. Anyone can read a scientific treatise on light and accomplish experiments demonstrating the validity of the discoveries mentioned in it.

But in the case of Evolution, nobody can test it—no one can prove that sediments create strata after millions of years, no one can prove that we have evolved from primates, no one can prove that we come from a fragment of matter or gas, because no one can reproduce that. Nobody was there; therefore no one can test the validity of the facts by experiment. They are but speculations—although they may be correct and extremely valid, no one can verify them. One can only measure their degree of possibility.

Today, we use the words science or scientist to signify a very broad concept. We generally trust something said to be scientific because we benefit abundantly from science in our modern world. However, it is best to use the term applied science when referring to the accomplishments of the technologies of science, because scientists who create technology do not actually experiment and search out for scientific laws, but they in fact use those laws which have already been discovered and apply them for the advancement of their particular field.

We must consider a few aspect relative to science. The first is that science is really a process of testing. One can form any silly scientific hypothesis which will remain a possibility before being proven wrong experimentally. Many scientists have done mistakes in the past, especially because they did not fully understand the particular process they were attempting to explain. But their ideas were long received because no existing data contradicted them.

That is the case with the atom's model. We began with Democritus’ model in 400 B.C. [] Chemistry: Precision & Design, 3rd édition, A Beka Book, Pensacola, page 22 He believed that particles of water were round and therefore slid easily, but that particles of iron were rugged and therefore held easily together. It is but much later, in 1803, that John Dalton modified that idea somewhat by enouncing that all atoms were spherical. From there, we passed on to the discovery of the electron and the proton, which were explained by J. J. Thomson’s model. But son, Ernest Rutherford proved that Thomson’s model was incorrect and created his own model, the nuclear model that we know.

Why were even these scientists in error? Because they could not see what they were researching. They could only enounce likely hypotheses up to the addition of new information.

That is why science cannot really prove anything: it can only contradict statements, because at no moment will a scientist be whispered in the ear, “You’re getting closer! Oh, but how you are so close to the truth; a seeds’s distance! Yes, yes, that’s it!” As long as he does not perform the particular experiment which infirms his silly hypothesis, it may be believed to be correct. And an important scientific law may not be discovered until very late simply because it was simply beyond the scope of possible experimentation. Science is therefore sometimes caught in error—not because it is imprecise, but because we, as humans, apply its concepts incorrectly.

The second aspect to consider about true science is that it must be based uniquely [] Found on en.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015. Now, that fact has very important repercussions, especially when considering Evolution, because Evolution as a whole is not testable, nor is it reiterable—there is no way to make evolution happen in a laboratory. We may be able to theorise and experiment on some of its aspects, but not to apply them.

That is why the science of the Theory of Evolution has nothing to do with the science which makes rockets rise to the moon. On one hand, scientists already knew the strength of gravity exactly, had extensively tested the reactions of the body, could calculate the constraints on the metals, and knew exactly what to expect. On the other hand, it is but possible to conjecture on theses as important as those of the first manifestation of life, or on the formation of the primitive atmosphere, or on the unfound fossil transition between diverse kinds of animals, or again still on the extinction of dinosaurs.

The only way that we could be scientifically certain that Evolution can occur would be to go back in time and see it happen. But we cannot. All we can do is measure its possible effects to determine whether or not Evolution constitutes a plausible idea. For instance, we can use the tools of science, like the calculation of mathematical probabilities or the application of chemistry, to evaluate the predictions of evolution. Therefore, to validate the truth of Evolution, it is first necessary to confirm its affirmations one by one.

We must now judge Evolution’s answer to the question of origins—the formation of matter out of empty space. Let us begin by examining the scientific laws concerning the creation of matter.

The first that comes to mind is the [] Found on fr.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015. which is, according to Wikipedia, "a fundamental law of chemistry and physics", and may be stated as follows:

In a closed system, mass [and therefore, matter] can neither be created nor destroyed. [] Found on en.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015.

The following First Law of Thermodynamics is also very similar. It is stated as follows:

In a closed system, energy [and therefore, motion and heat] can be neither created nor destroyed. [] Found on en.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015.

That stands in pretty stark contrast with the statement that "the earth came from a speck of dust the size of a pea" or even "of an atom". Scientists see the difficulties with that type of thinking as can be read in [] Found on web.archive.org March 7, 2015. , where it is written that "The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed—inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. [...] But the big bang theory can't survive without these fudge factors." That letter is followed by many hundreds of signatures from scientists of the whole globe.

But on the other hand, to disqualify evolution in that manner would not be satisfying, because any other solution to the question of origins relies on a god, which also requires a break with the normal laws of science. We therefore are lead to our first conclusion, which is the following:

First Conclusion The beginning of the universe is a violation of the laws of science because matter cannot be formed out of nothingness.

Since we have not in fact been witnesses to the creation of the universe, but are only confronted with its existence, we can also conclude that to put faith in one or the other of the explanations of origins is necessary, since faith defined is the evidence of things not seen [] Hebrews chapter 11 verse 1: Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. and is akin to confidence. We can therefore mark another point of knowledge as being certain, which is the following:

Second Conclusion: Any explanation of origins requires faith because no man is a witness of the formation of the cosmos.

That is a surprising discovery! And notice that we have only applied the intelligence that we already have, combining it with the application of truths we already know. We cannot draw clear conclusions yet, but we have already developed a clear and defensible line of thought.

But notice the significance of our newly found conclusion. Regardless of what one believes on how the universe was originated, his understanding will always be built upon faith. That means that Evolution, as well as Intelligent Creation (by whatever way it is deemed to have been accomplished) requires faith. To find an already lived solution to the origin of the universe is impossible. That is why all ideas concerning its formation have the same original status: that of philosophy purely and simply.

Let us now examine how evolution is assumed to have happened from the first manifestation of matter.

Originally, the universe is a hyper hot ball, incredibly dense, in the middle of which the notions of space and time do not exist. A state that our laws of physics are incapable of explaining. [...] Of the original beam of energy a hot soup of plasma at billions of trillions of trillions of degrees Celsius emerges containing the fundamental particles and antiparticles. There is not photon therefore no light. The universe begins its expansion brutally everywhere at the same time. Its size grows by a trillion times in on trillionth of a second. The temperature then drops to ten million degrees Celsius in less than a millionth of a second. The reactions which were produced between particles and antiparticles give birth to the first protons, neutrons and other heavier particles. In 100 seconds, when the universe attains a width of many hundreds of light years, the cores of almost all the atoms of hydrogen and helium form. After follows a period of many thousands of years during which the universe continues its expansion and cools de facto. But the whole is too loaded in energy for the particles to have had time to associate long enough to produce atoms. Matter, elaborated in the enormous pots called stars, appears much later. [] Found on fr.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015.

These affirmations are incredible, especially for scientists so-called. They are but purely unverifiable conjectures; tolerated scientific myths. Imagine a small stone—a single rock. Now try to conceive how much energy will be necessary to compress that rock. Such an energy is difficult to imagine, since solids such as rock are by nature incompressible.

But we are not talking here of a single stone, nor of a few hundred of them, but of the mass of the entire earth, of the moon, of the planets, of the sun; and as if that were not already sufficient, we are also speaking of an unknown number of stars, many of which are thousands of times larger than our own sun. But at a certain point all this universe was apparently reduced to an unreasonably small size. No one can even begin to imagine the phenomenal quantity of energy necessary to compress such a quantity of matter to the required size. But all this pressure apparently came from free space! Even if many explanations have been put forward, such as for example the existence of dark matter, they have more to do with the category of gratuitous statements than with true and verifiable science.

The idea that the whole universe came from nothing is made no less incredible by shrinking it to the size of a pea.

Why is it therefore said that the universe arose out of a little speck of strongly condensed gas, if that presents extreme problems? Well, we can plainly see that the original speck is the evolutionary response to the beginning of times. It is quite clear that the universe could not simply appear out of the midst of nowhere, as we have already mentioned in our presupposition. But that response by no means constitutes a satisfactory one! If the universe began from that core of energy, then when did that primitive grain come from?

In fact, if it is already quite marvellous to consider that the universe must have appeared magically and without cause, Evolution must also pretend much more, by affirming that it must also have been compressed to an inconceivably ridiculous size. That only exacerbates the problem!

Third Conclusion: In explaining the origins of our universe, the Theory of Evolution defeats its principal axiom of immunity towards any non-natural process by resorting to the most irrational of hypotheses.

We can see plainly enough that, at least in its beginnings, Evolution really does not solve the question of origins. But we must not stop here, because we may still find merit in Evolution in the matter of the apparition of life on earth, also called Biological Evolution.

Analysis of Biological Evolution

Second interrogation: Is Biological Evolution a means making life possible on earth?

We will not address here the question of abiogenesis, which however causes enigmas similar to those concerning the formation of matter, because there is no known way to transform matter or gas in the least living debris. We will only speak here of the evolution of species of complex animals from simpler organisms.

Charles Darwin is very well known for his suggestion of Natural Selection, which came after his study of the Galapagos finches. He believed that animals were not physically immutable, as was the popular belief, but could also adapt to their environment. In this way he postulated that this adaptation had permitted animals to evolve from more primitive forms of life such as bacteria and amoebas up to more complex organisms such as humans.

Natural Selection is truly a biologically uncontested fact. Dogs, for example, have changed from their original family and have become Chihuahuas, Great Danes, German Shepherds, and so on. Polar bears now have certain characteristics which distinguish them from their Grizzly cousins. Budgies now exist in a variety of colourations, [] Félix Rodriguez de la Fuente, La faune, vie et moeurs des animaux sauvages, éditions franson, Montréal, page 148

Can we therefore conclude that animals have evolved, and continue to do so today? Remember that scientifically, unless an experience is repeatable, it cannot become a scientific fact. But we can deduce what must be true if Biological Evolution is real. Let us therefore remind ourselves of what we know concerning the formation of animal life.

Each living creature contains inside it what we call [] Found on fr.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015. Through research, we have discovered that DNA is a series of molecules which code for the entire corporeal arrangement of a creature. DNA is part of our genome, which is essentially a manual of all the instructions necessary to the formation and life of a biological creature. It is constituted of two complimentary series of [] Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, Dr. J.C. Sanford, FMS Publications, Waterloo, New York (2008), page 2 Its use is the creation of biological machinery such as proteins and RNA. [] Found on fr.wikipedia.org March 7, 2015. It can also regulate its own information by using [] Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, page 3 by responding to the outside world, and even by rearranging itself.

Each cell of that creature contains a replica of the organism’s DNA. When a new cell is formed, the DNA is first copied from the mother cell, and is afterwards used as an instruction manual for the arrangement of that new cell, [] Found on nature.com March 7, 2015. its function, and how it will accomplish what it must do. Essentially, DNA is very similar to a computer code such as Java or Python, containing all the instructions necessary for the construction of an organism, up to the smallest detail.

Doctor John C. Sanford is very qualified to explain genetic complexity. Having received his doctorate from the University of Wisconsin in the venue of genetic reproduction of plants, he was afterwards very involved in the project of genetically modified foods, and published about 80 scientific treatises as well as 30 patents. He was also a professor at the reputed Cornell University. Here is what he wrote:

Most DNA sequences are polyfunctional and so must also be poly-constrained. This means that DNA sequences have meaning on several different levels (polyfunctional) and each level of meaning limits possible future change (poly-constrained). [] John C. Sanford, Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, page 132

Dr. Sanford explains that the concept is very similar to a sentence which can be read from left to right, from right to left, selecting each second letter, and translating it by a decoding program. Any change in that sentence will without a doubt lead to the destruction of many messages. But [] John C. Sanford, Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, page 131

DNA therefore contains more information that a linear code (such as the present text). It is now clear that the genetic code in great part uses methods of data compression permitting it to have a greater efficiency than even 100%. Trifonov demonstrated that probably all genetic instances code for more than a single series of data—even up to 12 at the same time! More and more data indicates that our genetic code contains not only linear information, but also tridimensional information, depending on the shape of the folded segment.

In relation with natural selection, the fact that the genetic code be poly-constrained signifies that no change can improve the genetic system already in place, since any mutation will produce a loss of information in one of the other series of information, is very problematic. A method capable of creating this information step by step is inconceivable, since if one of the codes evolved, the other must have constantly changed, without having any meaning. But if it did not have meaning, it should firstly not have been present without being rejected by natural selection.

Another problem concerning genetic selection is genetic entropy. At each new generation, the human genetic code gains genetic mutations. The minimal rate is estimated at 100 new mutations per generation. [] Found on nature.com March 7, 2015. Most of these mutations have a near-neutral effect. All, or almost all imaginable mutations, degrade our genetic code. But most don’t have a noticeable effect. They affect systems which are much too precise and strike us in such a benign way that we cannot notice them. That causes three evolutionary problems:

First, destructive mutations greatly outnumber useful mutations. Indeed, imagine a hundred character substitutions made at random in this text. Consider the chance that such a “mutation” give whatever advantage to my text. That chance is obviously very weak, if not null, and will not suffice to compensate for all the other textual errors which will also follow. And if this text reproduces itself, its errors will repeat itself with it, and more will later be added to it. That process will repeat itself until the text becomes unrecognisable.

That insoluble phenomenon of ceaselessly worsening degradation is named genetic entropy. It ends only after the final extinction of the concerned species.

Second, since these mutations habitually have a near-neutral effect, recognizing and selecting them becomes impossible. They are like rust which cannot be stopped. Furthermore, not only must we recognize them out of 3 billion, but our organism also often compensates for the lacks they cause, thus making them absolutely invisible, although harmful ultimately.

Third, numerically, to select for more than one mutation per generation is impossible, since to remain stable, it must either be eliminated or kept to be passed on to the next generation. But since we mutate much too rapidly, that selection is impossible. And even if it were, the population would still need to be pushed to the limits of extinction. Furthermore, that process is much too slow. According to Dr. Sanford’s calculations, the creation of a single gene would require at least 12 billion years, Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, page 126 which is abominably too long!

We have but touched the surface of a raging debate, but here is a summary of the immense genetic and mathematical problems to which the theory of biological Evolution is confronted. Dr. Sanford, relative to his discovery of the pains of mutation and natural selection, said this concerning that evolutionary axiom:

"In fact, it is essentially indefensible. […] Furthermore, I began to see that this deep-seated faith in natural selection is typically coupled with a degree of ideological commitment which can only be described as religious. I started to realize (again with trepidation) that I might be offending the religion of a great number of people!" Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, pages vi-vii

Indeed, attachment to Evolution is often accompanied by cynical mockery for whoever is not in that group. Yet, the more our knowledge of the genome increases, the more we understand the impossibility of the evolutionary explanation. Why therefore such a faithful commitment to a theory dealing with such oppressive evidence? There are many possible reasons, but it may be useful to revisit this quote become famous from the evolutionist Richard Lewontin:

We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, in spite of its failure to fulfill many of its extravagant promises of health and life, in spite of the tolerance of the scientific community for unsubstantiated just-so stories, because we have a prior commitment, a commitment to materialism. It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is absolute, for we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door. http://www.drjbloom.com/Public%20files/Lewontin_Review.htm (March 1, 2015)

It is pertinent to mention here that although Evolution be the greatly majoritarian and established point of view, many considered scientists have come to understand that Evolution could not explain their discoveries, and that life depends on developments possible solely by the supply of highly sophisticated information. Concerning this subject, the Intelligent Design movement is notable for its contribution to the fact of the irreducible complexity of life.

Indeed, our genome is a gigantic and fragile database, refined up to the minutest detail. We in no way know all the functions it accomplishes, but seeing its polyfunctionality, its ever-increasing entropy, the specificity of the information which it contains, the impossibility of a quick enough evolution, as well as the too great odds of chance against natural selection—and here is where we must mark a very shocking and controversial, yet true point—biological evolution is not a functional theory and will never explain the coming of life.

It now becomes necessary to establish what has already been discussed by a next conclusion. Now, I know very well that it will be largely rejected, but understand that I have no other choice, but intellectual honesty, as well as for the conclusion of the narrative, except to note it.

Fourth Conclusion: The Theory of Biological Evolution is a model entirely riddled with error making it non-functional even in its most obvious aspects.

To repeat this shocking and even disappointing news, Evolution is not reliable in its predictions, which is a basic aspect of science and is even more of essence for the discovery of the truth.

What is troubling is what Lewontin says so well: in resorting to things other than Evolution, we open the door to a Divine Foot. But let us not open the door to ideology. What must be discussed will be.

Analysis of Religion

Have we not begun this discussion by concluding that all interpretations of the question of origins must forcibly be based on faith? But if Evolution as well as Creation are both based on faith, they therefore both constitute a philosophy. If we define religiosity as the expression of a faith, then Evolution itself is religious!

Religion can be largely defined as the way of thinking of a person, since it exerts such a vast control over what a person thinks. A person will fear or revere certain objects or divinities because of his faith; he will accept or deny certain truths because of his way of thinking; and he will accomplish the rites or works which his religion imposes.

We will more specifically define religion as follows:

Religion is a system of beliefs, or philosophy, to which an individual adheres; It is the highest authority of that individual; It sets his standards and controls his comprehension of what one must expect of life; It is the basis of the explanation of origins in which that person believes.

I would have wanted to enter here into a debate between religions themselves, but because of the extent of the subject, I have preferred to constrain myself to defending the biblical point of view which I have already acquired, and which is held by the great defenders of the intelligent creation of the world.

There are many types of religion, but since they contradict themselves abundantly, they cannot all be plausible. Now, there are certain religions which evidently seem more than others to resort more to imagination and superstition than to reality. Many ancestral gods explain nothing at all to the beginning of the universe, since they were supposedly born at the same moment as the world itself. Many religious myths do not correspond to our knowledge of the universe. But what is worrying is the impossibility of verifying everything.

Nevertheless, as we had envisioned, faith makes confidence necessary. And as we do not have confidence in a person without first knowing him, we would have no confidence in such and such explanation of our origins without first knowing it. That is why I wish to discuss the biblical narrative.

Note that the Bible contains certain interesting characteristics for our next step towards the truth. First, it is borrowed or acknowledged by many religions, of which are Judaism, Islam, Catholicism, or again Protestantism, as well as many sects such as Jehovah’s Witnesses or Mormonism. It is notorious that a great number of these religions, such as Islam, Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormonism, all add other /volumes and beliefs to the Biblical text, therefore forcibly entering into contradiction with it. But that is a subject upon which others have already written, noting with precision the objections of Scripture: I must not dwell on the subject. What I especially wish to demonstrate is that by evaluating the truth of the Bible, we can either include or eliminate a great bulk of existing religions.

Secondly, the Biblical text unilaterally demands to be the word of the only God, as it is written, “I am the LORD; and there is none else.” Isaiah Chapter 45 verse 18 So therefore, if it is truth, it also eliminates every other religion.

Thirdly, the Bible contains many historical or archeological references which are entirely possible to verify.

Fourthly, the Bible contains many prophecies of which it is also possible to verify the accomplishment.

That is why we will choose the Bible as new starting point between the diverse religions of the earth. Nevertheless, we are not doing so in preconceived reverence for the Bible, but rather to be able to test its veracity.

Exposition of the Biblical Narrative

Third Interrogation: Is the Bible credible?

Here is the history of man as we read it in the Bible:

"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." Genesis Chapter 1 verse 1

We therefore have here, as signified by the phrase “In the beginning”, the beginning of times. God must therefore have created the laws of physics at that moment to make them reign over the universe. But He himself is not bound by the laws of His creation; therefore “having neither beginning of days, nor end of life”, Hebrews Chapter 7 verse 3 God himself has no need for a beginning or a creator.

"And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. And God blessed them, and God said to them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creeps on the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day." Genesis Chapter 1 verses 26-31

By these verses, we see quite clearly where we came from: as it is written, God made man in His own image. That principally signifies that He created us with a volition similar to His own; that we are provided with a capacity and a liberty of reasoning and decision.

"And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it: for in the day that you eat thereof you shall surely die." Genesis Chapter 2 verses 15-17

Here is the reason to our existence. God did not only place man in the garden “dress it and to keep it”, but also gave him a commandment, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it”. Why would the Lord place a tree in the garden as well as a command asking not to eat of it? To tempt man? Far from that! But it was rather to permit man to obey Him—to give man the choice to follow the Lord. God did not make of man a robot without value, but rather a being with a full conscience. The fruit in itself had no real significance, but the act of eating from it had grave consequences, because in that way man preferred his own desire to that of his creator.

"Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made." Genesis Chapter 3 verse 1

(It was said concerning him:

"[…] You seal up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. You have been in Eden the garden of God; […] You were perfect in your ways from the day that you were created, till iniquity was found in you. […] Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty, you have corrupted your wisdom by reason of your brightness: I will cast you to the ground, I will lay you before kings, that they may behold you. […] therefore will I bring forth a fire from the middle of you, it shall devour you, and I will bring you to ashes on the earth in the sight of all them that behold you. All they that know you among the people shall be astonished at you: you shall be a terror, and never shall you be any more." Ezechiel Chapter 28 verses 12-19
"And he said to the woman, Yes, has God said, You shall not eat of every tree of the garden? And the woman said to the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it, lest you die. And the serpent said to the woman, You shall not surely die: For God does know that in the day you eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also to her husband with her; and he did eat. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons." Genesis Chapter 3 verses 1-7
"And the LORD God said to the serpent, Because you have done this, you are cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; on your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life: And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; it shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel. To the woman he said, I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; in sorrow you shall bring forth children; and your desire shall be to your husband, and he shall rule over you. And to Adam he said, Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you, saying, You shall not eat of it: cursed is the ground for your sake; in sorrow shall you eat of it all the days of your life; Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you; and you shall eat the herb of the field; In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return to the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are, and to dust shall you return. And Adam called his wife' name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. To Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them. And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from where he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life." Genesis Chapter 3 verses 14-24

By the phrase “for dust you are, and to dust shall you return” we have the beginning of death and suffering. But in a certain way, death is a gift of God. By it, He has kept man from living eternally in an ever worsening condition of accumulation of infirmity and spiritual culpability. That condition is reserved for the judgment of God, out of which there will be no rescue for the condemned. That is what God prevented when he kept Adam and Eve from eating of another tree, the tree of life, by placing an angel with a sword to guard the garden. But that life is still available for those who search the Lord and love Him, since He affirms, “To him that overcomes will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the middle of the paradise of God.” Revelation Chapter 2 verse 7

When Adam and Eve sinned, they had to be separated from God, because no man can see God and live. Exodus Chapter 33 verse 20 From then on, the entire human race was separated from God and His perfection, and must stay so because “there is none that does good, no, not one.” Psalm 14 verse 3

That is why “the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked”. In a spiritual sense, they had become inappropriate by their evil, and had to be covered by justice. Because that was the case, God made them self-conscious by their nudity, for them to understand, by the shame that they felt, in what way their relation with Him had been broken. They wanted to cover their error by sewing fix leaves to cover themselves. But the works of man are never sufficient to cover him. As we read, “we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags”. Isaiah Chapter 64 verse 6

We then have a detailed genealogy of the sons of Adam. The Bible says,

"And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, and after his image; and called his name Seth: And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters: And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died. And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos: And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters", Genesis Chapter 5 verses 3-7 and so on.

Evidently, these genealogies claim unheard of and extremely high ages for men! However, it is necessary to note firstly that these genealogies are nevertheless not written in a fabulous way, but that they are rather mentioned with precision, in a way to recall simple historical facts. In this case, since we were not there, we must well give the historian the benefit of the doubt.

Also, secondly, the writer, to be in the least believable, would never have modified the facts in such a striking way. If he included those things in the text, it is because they must evidently have belonged there.

Thirdly, contrary to our first reaction of disdain, this genealogical tree actually imposes itself because of genetic entropy. Indeed, Adam, in starting with a non-deformed genetic code, would thus have benefited from a much slower genetic degeneration as compared to ours. But from father to son, longevity declined rapidly up to two-hundred years and beneath. After the studies of Dr. John Sanford, Jim Pamplin, and Christopher Rupe, we can simulate that degeneration by setting computer parameters. The degeneration produced exactly produces the longevity curve followed by Adam and his sons after him, up to us, on a period of approximately six thousand years, which is the biblical period from the creation of life to our days. http://www.kolbecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Genetic-Entropy-Recorded-in-the-Bible.pdf (March 7, 2015)

http://blog.drwile.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/patriarchs.jpg
This is a graph of human degeneration over time as simulated by computer.

Computer simulations can verify this state of things.

See http://mendelsaccountant.info/ They demonstrate that even by assuming that natural selection is efficient in keeping the weakest from reproducing, extinction of mankind occurs within 350 generations; that can only occur by the biblical model, which admits approximately 230 generations between Adam and ourselves. http://www.icr.org/article/new-genomes-project-data-indicate-young/ (March 7, 2015)

The surprising longevities mentioned in Genesis, instead of constituting a problem, are therefore in reality the manifestation that the Bible has only documented facts, even unlikely, in the name of truth. Its texts may have received the mockery of our elders, but today, with the advancement of science and the new archeological discoveries, those positions must be realigned towards what the Bible already claimed long ago.

After a few generations, “God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.” Genesis Chapter 6 verse 5 “But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.” Genesis Chapter 6 verse 8 “Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God.” Genesis Chapter 6 verse 9 God therefore told him,

"Make you an ark of gopher wood; rooms shall you make in the ark, and shall pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which you shall make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A window shall you make to the ark, and in a cubit shall you finish it above; and the door of the ark shall you set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shall you make it. And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters on the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die. But with you will I establish my covenant; and you shall come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons' wives with you. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shall you bring into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come to you, to keep them alive. And take you to you of all food that is eaten, and you shall gather it to you; and it shall be for food for you, and for them. Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he." Genesis Chapter 6 verses 14-22

“In the six hundredth year of Noah’ life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.” Genesis Chapter 7 verse 11 It is the flood on the entire earth.

Once again, the flood is one of the accusations brought up most often against the Bible. But the geology of the earth confirms abundantly. The exact mechanisms of the flood must be elucidated, but its effects are undeniable. The main matter is of course principally to know whether the biblical flood is possible—and it is without a doubt.

The Bible mentions that “the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.” It therefore seems that the earth contained under it great springs of water, which, under pressure, suddenly burst open and covered the surface of the earth. Seeing the great quantity of magma buried beneath the earth, a great reservoir of water does not either sound improbable. Besides, a great quantity of water vapour still mounts up from volcanoes today. Although conveniently ignored by the modern geologic community, the testimony of this remarkable natural catastrophe which was the flood cover the earth. Certain fossils, supposedly fossilised gradually after their death, were in reality buried very rapidly, as fossils of fish giving birth or again eating other fish testify. Certain fossils, named poly-strate, pass vertically through layers of rock supposed to have been deposited after millions of years, grain by grain. Certain other fossils have left the print of their skin in the rock; that they die without their skin decomposing is impossible, unless they have been rapidly deposited and buried, without being exposed to predators and bacterial flora. And again, fossils of the famous Tyrannosaurus have been found containing blood and still elastic fibres, which would doubtless have dried out had they fossilised millions of years ago. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/dinosaur-shocker-115306469/?no-ist (March 11, 2015) http://creation.com/still-soft-and-stretchy

https://legacy-cdn-assets.answersingenesis.org/images/articles/am/v2/n2/fossil-fish.jpg#fossil%20fish%20eat%20fish%20600x282
There is much geological evidence of rapid fossilisation. Here, a fossilised fish eating another.

The evolutionary model of the formation of stratified rocks is incorrect. Strata are fine layers of sediment arranged uniformly in the sedimentary rock. According to evolutionary geology, “Each band represents a specific mode of deposition: river silt, beach sand, coal swamp, sand dune, lava bed, etc.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum (March 11, 2015) But that model is in reality particularly problematic: if the strata were exposed in the course of millions of years, they would not be absolutely flat such as we see them, but they would be eroded and very deformed. This is again a sad case of interpretation brought up before the analysis of the facts in cause.

But according to experiments generated by the scientific method, and not according to conjectural means, sedimentary deposits caused by water moving rapidly are automatically arranged by order of magnitude, causing the type of stratification which we find everywhere around the world. http://creation.com/experiments-on-stratification-of-heterogeneous-sand-mixtures (11 mars 2015) Besides, it is not only a hypothesis, but also an observed fact. In 1980, following the eruption of the volcano of St-Helens, a stratified deposit of pyroclastic matter was formed in a few hours, being 7.6 meters tall. Another mudflow then blasted its way through and dug three canyons, one of which, having a great similarity to the Grand Canyon, was named the “Little Grand Canyon”. A river not having contributed to its formation flows there today. http://creation.com/our-world-afk-mount-st-helens-iguanodons-guinea-pigs-clownfish (11 mars 2015)

http://dl0.creation.com/articles/p009/c00984/Little-Grand-Canyon.jpg
The formation of stratified rocks does not require millions of years, as is demonstrated by the catastrophe of Mt. St-Helens.

Such catastrophic situations (violent flood, destructive volcanoes, tectonic movements, sedimentary deposition) are explained exactly by the biblical model of the flood. The rapid fossilisation of all the kinds of animals and plants is explained in that way. Even the order in which they are deposited vertically corresponds with the expected order, going from the marine species to terrestrial plants to birds, which are lighter and would have had a greater chance of being buried last. In this model also explains the great accumulations of fossils, called “fossil graveyards”, where a great number of animals and plants are found deposited in the same place. They would have formed in the gyre-like movements of the water on the surface of the earth.

After the flood, a great quantity of water was no doubt imprisoned on the continents by their shape after the lowering of the waters. The sediments deposited by the flood being still relatively soft after their deposition, the waters quitting the continents, by picking up great quantities of abrasive mud on their passage, would easily have been able to tear through them by their massive wake. It is a method favourable to large geologic singularities such as the Grand Canyon.

It is generally supposed that the Ice Age occurred after the repercussions of the flood, thanks to the great quantity of water vapour and volcanic ejecta having darkened the skies and thus cooled the earth. Indeed, geologic strata contain layers of volcanic matter. That explains the manifestations of glaciation present on the continents today.

As to the survival of all the species of animals on the ark, it must be noted that the majority of today’s animals are due to speciation. In reality, they come from a proto-species which contained all the genetic information able to produce the variation we know today. After the flood, after their spreading over the earth and thanks to natural selection, animals expressed certain much more specific characteristics. That is why Noah only had to bring one or two couples of the canine race, of the feline race, of the equine race, of the elephantine race, and so on. http://creation.com/how-did-all-the-animals-fit-on-noahs-ark (March 12, 2015)

The destruction of the waters would also have created immense rafts of organic matter, thanks to which many species of plants and insects might have survive the passage of the waters.

The flood as mentioned in the biblical narrative is therefore much more than likely, but again harmonizes itself justly with the observations made on the field.

After the flood, the sons of Noah—Shem, Ham, and Japheth—repopulated the earth. It is very interesting to note that the names of the sixteen grandsons of Noah still match very well with the names of the peoples today. http://creation.com/the-sixteen-grandsons-of-noah (March 12, 2015) Indeed, the tribes descending from them named themselves after their common ancestor, et often designated their own territory, city, or river after his name. It also happened that because of ancestor worship, they christened their god after the name of their ancient fathers.

The Bible mentions that “The sons of Japheth; [were] Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.” Genesis Chapter 10 verse 2

The historian Flavius Josephus wrote that the people called Galatians or Gauls in his time were known beforehand as the Gomerites. Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, Chapter 1, section 1 It is this people that we know today by the name of Gauls. The Bible says that the sons of Gomer were “Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.” The Hebrew word for Germany remains Ashkenaz. The name of Turkey probably also comes from Togarma.

Flavius Josephus wrote that the descendants of Madai were called Medes by the Greeks. After Cyrus, the Medes formed a people indistinct from the Persians, and were simply called Persians. The modern country of the Persians today is Iran.

The next son of Japheth, Javan, is synonymous of the Greeks; that name is assimilated to Ion, the most important Greek tribe (the Ionians). http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yavane (March 11, 2015)

After Javan comes Tubal. His descendants were known by the Assyrians as the Tabali; they were noted by Joesphus as being the Thobelites, also known by the Romans under the name of Ibers. That plance today includes Georgia, of which the capital is still known by the name Tubal, said Tbilissi. They also gave their name to the river Tobol, as well as to the city of Tobolsk.

Meschec gave his name to the city of Moscow itself; still today, the plains surrounding Moscow are called the Meshchera.

According to Josephus, the last mentioned son, Tiras, is the father of the tribe known by the Greeks as Thracians. Ancient Thracia included much of what we call Yugoslavia today. Tiras, father of the Thracians, was long revered as Thuras or Thor, god of thunder.

Still according to the Bible, “the sons of Ham; [were] Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.” Genesis Chapter 10 verse 6 The Hamites correspond to the Africans of today.

The first son of Ham mentioned, Cush, is the ancient Hebrew name for Ethiopia. They were known by all under the name of Chushites.

The second son, Mizraim, corresponds directly to Egypt. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, as well as for the other Semitic tongues. Many Egyptian institutions, such as the Misr Bank, are still named by this patronym.

Phut is the Hebrew name describing Libya; Josephus calls this people by the name of Phutites.

Canaan is the father of the people of the Roman region of Palestine, including the Sidonians and the Hittites, these last having become strong against Egypt. Also mentioned are many other names of the ancient dwellers of that region.

After, the Bible attests that “The children of Shem; [were] Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.” Genesis Chapter 10 verse 22

Elam corresponds to Iran, of the ancient people of Persia. Of old, the Persians were called Elamites; they were associated to the Medes, sons of Madai, sons of Japheth.

Assur is the father of the Assyrian people: the Hebrew name Assur signifies Assyrian. His brother Arphaxad, father of the Chaldeans, was also, by his son Eber, ancestor of the Hebrews. Their brother Lud is the ancestor of the Lydians, coming from western Turkey. And again, their brother Aram is the ancient Hebrew name meaning Syria; the Syrian tongue being Aramaic, the current language at the time of Jesus Christ.

As so, even by quick overview, we realise that the historical facts coincide perfectly with the biblical narrative. It is also so for many other archaeological points.

Many hundreds of years after the flood, Terach, descendant of Shem, “took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son’ son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram’ wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came to Haran, and dwelled there.” Genesis Chapter 11 verse 31 So began the history of the Hebrew people.

"Now the LORD had said to Abram, Get you out of your country, and from your kindred, and from your father' house, to a land that I will show you: And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless you, and curse him that curses you: and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed." Genesis Chapter 12 verses 1-3

Further on, God again affirms: “And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if you be able to number them: and he said to him, So shall your seed be.” Genesis Chapter 15 verse 5 The Bible then details the complete history of Abram (after known as Abraham), of his son Isaac, as well as that of his grandson Jacob—also known by the name of Israel, signifying “who debates with God.” Genesis Chapter 32 verse 28

Many hundreds of years after Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, there was a good and famous king in Israel called David. Here are the words prophesied to him by Nathan, the prophet:

"Also the LORD tells you that he will make you an house. And when your days be fulfilled, and you shall sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, which shall proceed out of your bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build an house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever. […] And your house and your kingdom shall be established for ever before you: your throne shall be established for ever." Second Book of Samuel, Chapter 7 verses 11-16

And here is what Isaiah the prophet said concerning that posterity:

"Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high. As many were astonished at you; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men: So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider. Who has believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed? For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he has no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he has borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was on him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he opens not his mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken. […] Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he has put him to grief: when you shall make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he has poured out his soul to death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors." Isaiah Chapter 52 verse 13 to Isaiah Chapter 53 verse 12

And here is what the Psalmist adds:

"My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? why are you so far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring? But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people. All they that see me laugh me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying, He trusted on the LORD that he would deliver him: let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him. Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. They gaped on me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion. I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the middle of my bowels. My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue sticks to my jaws; and you have brought me into the dust of death. For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. I may tell all my bones: they look and stare on me. They part my garments among them, and cast lots on my clothing. All the ends of the world shall remember and turn to the LORD: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before you. For the kingdom is the LORD': and he is the governor among the nations. All they that be fat on earth shall eat and worship: all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him: and none can keep alive his own soul. A seed shall serve him; it shall be accounted to the Lord for a generation. They shall come, and shall declare his righteousness to a people that shall be born, that he has done this." Psalm 22 verses 1-31

All the texts mentioned above have been recopied after manuscripts made during the second to the third century before Jesus-Christ. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuscrits_de_la_mer_Morte#Datation_des_textes (March 13, 2015) We know that because these texts were found in the Manuscripts of the Dead Sea, themselves copied down from older writings. Indeed, of the fragments of the Dead Sea we find 24 manuscripts of Genesis, 39 of the /volume of Psalms, and 22 of the scroll of Isaiah. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuscrits_de_la_mer_Morte#Datation_des_textes (March 13, 2015)

But the prophecies all concern Jesus Christ, come way after their writing! Here is the principal reason for which it is possible to demonstrate that the Bible is divinely inspired: it says, and its word is accomplished.

Now, it is of course possible to prophecy largely and very vaguely so that what we predicted will most possibly be accomplished. But in these writings, by no way was it possible to be as specific. Besides, the Bible, when it predicted something, was never mistaken, and its word was always exactly accomplished exactly. That is required, since here is the rule established over the prophets:

"But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die. And if you say in your heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD has not spoken? When a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD has not spoken, but the prophet has spoken it presumptuously: you shall not be afraid of him." Deuteronomy Chapter 18 verses 20-22

But let us first observe their accomplishment. According to the history of Jesus, He was always opposed among those of His generation. Herod was the first to want to assassinate Him. Matthew Chapter 2 verse 16 At each turn, the specialists of the law wished to trick Him: “By what authority do you these things? and who gave you this authority?” Matthew Chapter 21 verse 23 They sought to destroy His reputation: “And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He has Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casts he out devils.” Mark Chapter 3 verse 22 Also, through political interest, the chiefs of the Jews found preferable to put Him to death: “And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said to them, You know nothing at all, Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.” John Chapter 11 verses 49-50 And that is how after having done only good, the Christ Himself was accused of being what He really was, the Son of God, and was officially put to death for blasphemy to the Jews and for sedition to the Romans—although the Roman judge, Pontius Pilate, exclaimed, “Why, what evil has he done?”, Mark Chapter 15 verse 14 and again, “You have brought this man to me, as one that perverts the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof you accuse him: No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, see, nothing worthy of death is done to him.” Luke Chapter 23 verses 14-15 Yet, he gave in facing the people, knowing well that they accused Him because of the envy they had towards Him. Matthew Chapter 27 verse 18

Here is therefore the accomplishment of the words of Isaiah the prophet, who had beforehand written those words from God’s mouth:

"Who has believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed?"

Adding furthermore:

"we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted."

After having mocked Jesus, they brought Him to be crucified.

"And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left. And the scripture was fulfilled, which said, And he was numbered with the transgressors." Mark Chapter 15 verses 27-28

A crucified man was tied and nailed to a cross. That is why David had written:

"For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet."
"Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which said, They parted my raiment among them, and for my clothing they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did." John Chapter 19 verses 23-24

Matthew reports the atmosphere of the scene in these terms:

"And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, And saying, You that destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself. If you be the Son of God, come down from the cross. Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God. The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth." Matthew Chapter 27 verses 39-44

That is what God had predicted by David, saying:

"But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people. All they that see me laugh me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying, He trusted on the LORD that he would deliver him: let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him."

Jesus, by His life and death, still accomplished many prophecies of the Scriptures which would be impossible to enumerate completely here; but it is now becoming necessary to explain why He had to die in such a way.

Here again are the words of Isaiah:

"by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. […] because he has poured out his soul to death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors."

Why the need to justify men? Why intercede for the guilty? Here is what was written on that topic:

"The LORD looked down from heaven on the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God. They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that does good, no, not one." Psalm 14 verses 2-3

The Jews had long received many commandments concerning obedience to God. According to the law, they had to accomplish many burnt offerings of animals as guilt offerings and as sacrifices of praise. They first placed their hand on the animal, which had to be without fault. That meant that the burden of offense was placed on the animal. Afterwards, the animal was slaughtered, and its blood spread on the altar upon which the sacrifice was held. After that, the meat was placed on the altar on wood to which the fire was put, thus consuming the offering. See Leviticus Chapter 1 et al.

These offerings reminded them of their imperfections; for those imperfections we are separated from God, according to what is written: “And [the Lord] said, You can not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.” Exodus Chapter 33 verse 20 We are not separate from God by a lack of goodness, but rather by our wrongdoing, which put a separation between ourselves and our God. Isaiah Chapter 59 verse 2 But those offerings also reminded them that they were not let to their own injustice, but that by the death and the blood of a victim without fault having taken on it their evil there was payment of the deserved judgment.

Nevertheless Paul writes, “For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.” Hebrews Chapter 10 verses 1-2 The Law is a reminder of the fallen condition of humanity and of the necessity of the remission of our sin. That is why John the Baptist, after recognising Jesus Christ, stated: “Behold the Lamb of God, which takes away the sin of the world.” John Chapter 1 verse 29

Jesus Christ is come on earth to accomplish the law. No man can attain the perfection of God to be in His presence, “for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin; As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one:” Romans Chapter 3 verses 9-10 From there stems the importance of the death of Jesus Christ. In dying, “for the transgression of my people was he stricken. Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him”. Indeed, God, filled by perfection, is not unjust to ignore evil. And being an equitable judge, “God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.” Ecclesiastes Chapter 12 verse 14 From there again originates the importance of what the law teaches us, as the Word of God asserts:

"He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: Of how much sorer punishment, suppose you, shall he be thought worthy, who has trodden under foot the Son of God, and has counted the blood of the covenant, with which he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and has done despite to the Spirit of grace? For we know him that has said, Vengeance belongs to me, I will recompense, said the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God." Hebrews Chapter 10 verses 28-31

After Jesus had been crucified and put to death, He was laid in a tomb, where He was shut in by a large stone.

"Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together to Pilate, Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again. Command therefore that the sepulcher be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say to the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first. Pilate said to them, You have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as you can. So they went, and made the sepulcher sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch." Matthew Chapter 27 verses 62-66

For the disciples, everything ended there. As soon as the authorities had seized Jesus, the following comment is reported: “And they all forsook him, and fled.” Mark Chapter 14 verse 50 Far from thinking of a plot to make the body disappear, they were greatly grieved of the death of their master, “For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.” John Chapter 20 verse 9

Nevertheless, it is reported that “when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the middle, and said to them, Peace be to you.” John Chapter 20 verse 19 Concerning the guards which surrounded the tomb, Matthieu testifies the following: “some of the watch came into the city, and showed to the chief priests all the things that were done. And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money to the soldiers, Saying, Say you, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. And if this come to the governor’ ears, we will persuade him, and secure you. So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.” Matthew Chapter 28 verses 11-15 That a few of the soldiers go justify themselves in front of the Jews is comprehensible, since their lives in front of the Romans were compromised; but that they go tell the people that the body was stolen as they slept was without a doubt more than enigmatical to the population, since in that case, they signalled their death sentence! Indeed, the death sentence was always duly executed by the Romans after the fleeing of a prisoner. Josh McDowell, The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict, Thomas Nelson, 1999, page 238 Acts Chapter 12 verse 19 And it is also reported that the soldiers of the guard of the temple who fell asleep during their night watch exposed themselves having their clothes burned on them, and that cries therefore arose from time to time from the guard’s stations. The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict, page 240

Indeed, it is not difficult to note that the disciples, after the crushing defeat and public humiliation of their preacher, would never have had the courage to suffer greatly and to die by the thousands http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Christians#Persecution_of_Christians_in_the_New_Testament in His name. Had they really wished to invent a religion, they could not have invented an as difficult and unacceptable one to the eyes of the people of their time.

In resurrecting, Jesus Christ, being born of the posterity of David, Luke Chapter 3 verse 31 was the accomplishment of the promise made to David in these terms: “I will set up your seed after you, which shall proceed out of your bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build an house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever.” II Samuel Chapter 7 verses 12-13

Recall also the following words, addressed to Abraham:

"And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless you, and curse him that curses you: and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed." Genesis Chapter 12 verses 2-3

This word was accomplished by the death and resurrection of Christ, since every person justified by him is considered as having received the promise of God, as Paul explains:

"For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel: Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall your seed be called. That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed." Romans Chapter 9 verses 6-8

Therefore, seeing the great reliability of the Bible—even when considering the very extensive period of its composition, as well as the controversial subjects which it touches—and seeing the perfect accomplishments of its prophecies—accomplishments which we were able to discuss but briefly, without taking into account the words of Ezekiel against Tyre, or again the announcement made by Daniel of the time when the Messiah would come, as well as many other passages—it is necessary to conclude its study in the following way:

Fifth Conclusion The Bible deserves to be considered as being truthful.

Now, the Bible has repeatedly been ardently contradicted by many persons. But that is hardly surprising, especially seeing the strong desire to turn away from it. Here is the testimony of Josh McDowell, Biblical apologist and author of many /volumes, including Evidence that Demands a Verdict:

"I decided to write a /volume that would make an intellectual joke of Christianity. I left the university and traveled throughout the United States and Europe to gather evidence to prove that Christianity is a sham.
[…] I couldn’t sleep at night. I would go to bed at ten o’clock and lie awake until four in the morning, trying to refute the overwhelming evidence I was accumulating that Jesus Christ was God’s Son.
I began to realize that I was being intellectually dishonest. My mind told me that the claims of Christ were indeed true, but my will was being pulled another direction. I had placed so much emphasis on finding the truth, but I wasn’t willing to follow it once I saw it." Josh McDowell, The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict, Thomas Nelson, 1999, page xxv

So let us strive not to do the same thing, but to find the true responses, whatever the price be. Let us align our steps towards the truth, and not against it.

The Results of the Veracity of the Bible

What are the consequences of the veracity of the Bible? It follows that we must be born again.

Born again?

Here is the significance of that phrase: one evening, a chief of the Jews named Nicodemus came to Jesus to speak to him. Here is their dialogue:

"Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that you do, except God be with him. Jesus answered and said to him, Truly, truly, I say to you, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus said to him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother' womb, and be born? Jesus answered, Truly, truly, I say to you, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said to you, You must be born again. The wind blows where it wants, and you hear the sound thereof, but can not tell from where it comes, and where it goes: so is every one that is born of the Spirit. Nicodemus answered and said to him, How can these things be? Jesus answered and said to him, Are you a master of Israel, and know not these things? Truly, truly, I say to you, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and you receive not our witness. If I have told you earthly things, and you believe not, how shall you believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? And no man has ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: That whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. He that believes on him is not condemned: but he that believes not is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that does evil hates the light, neither comes to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. But he that does truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are worked in God." John Chapter 3 verses 2-21

To be born again refers to a new spiritual alignment. It means that we renounce to the dead works of our flesh to become children of the promise of God, according to what God promised Abraham:

"Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if you be able to number them: and he said to him, So shall your seed be." Genesis Chapter 15 verse 5

It is also the accomplishment of the following words, mentioned earlier:

"And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless you, and curse him that curses you: and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed." Genesis Chapter 12 verses 2-3

It is still necessary to complete our definition of religion. Since any explanation of origins requires faith in what is not seen, any explanation of origins—even evolution—may be classified, in a very wide sense, as being a faith, or a religion. It therefore becomes desirable to dissociate false religion from true religion.

According to the understanding of the holy scriptures of the Bible, here is what can be postulated:

True religion places the God of Creation in His true place of authority; It illumines our knowledge and saves the soul from eternal condemnation.

At last, let us add that:

False religion invariably installs nature, of whichever form that it be, in a position of supreme authority. Some worship idols, others plants or animals, and again others exalt man; False religion cancels the truth of God by replacing it by what man conceives it to be.

What we are saying is that the essence of false religion is to deny the divinity of the true God. Certain religions, said to be idolatrous, grant this divinity to idols; certain religions also, said to be animistic, grand this divinity to the winds, forests, or animals; or yet again, certain other religions authorise no divine authority, but admit only the power of man.

What we notice is that any false religion denies the existence of the eternal God and concedes it to what is part of His creation. False faith tramples underfoot the Creator of the universe and of man.

Any false religion also requires the accomplishment of a sufficient number of good works in order to present oneself before God. But that denies the work of Christ, who died at our place, and thus saved us from eternal condemnation. As it is written in the Bible:

"For by grace are you saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to good works, which God has before ordained that we should walk in them." Ephesians Chapter 2 verses 8-10

In Conclusion

The subject of origins is extremely vast. I am largely certain that in reading this short /volume, many of my readers will have contradicted me step by step. In elaborating this text, I cannot keep myself from imagining the great number of questions and arguments, artificial or not, which will be brought, mentally or verbally, against this reasoning.

As the great sage Solomon has said, “of making many /volumes there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh. Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.” Ecclesiastes Chapter 12 verses 13-14

I know that the debate of origins has been and will continue being sharply debated. However, it does not so much concern the facts, but rather our desire to interpret them correctly. Too often, we succumb to what we want to know rather than to what the truth demands.

In considering these facts, and knowing that it is to me impossible to suffice to the task, I desire to open the dialogue up to those who wish to discuss it in adding comments, questions, counter-arguments, or again corrections. This /volume will therefore be published in the social medium Google+, found at the web address plus.google.com; it can be found there by joining the community named “Pas à Pas Vers la Vérité.”

Thank you therefore for your patient reading, and welcome to all those who well wish to join the discussion.

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